“Although non-hydro renewables are likely to be the primary option for supplying the bulk of California’s zero-carbon electricity supply in 2045, it is not clear what California’s lofty new goal means for wind energy. Permitting in California is difficult, and federal land use policies have dramatically curbed wind development on Bureau of Land Management land. Additional wind energy may be available from outside of the state or offshore. But out-of-state procurement has been hampered by stalled efforts to authorize the expansion of the California Independent System Operator. And major challenges bedevil offshore wind, including a lack of transmission, U.S. Navy operations conflicts, deep-water engineering challenges and a lack of port infrastructure.”
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