This study looks at the energy, financial, and greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) impacts of converting oil and propane furnaces, boilers, and water heaters to high-efficiency electric heat pumps. We also examine customer satisfaction with heat pumps and emerging program experience promoting electrification of home heating. Several studies have found that electrification of space and water heating will be needed if the United States is to meet long-term goals for reducing emissions of greenhouse gases. While other studies have examined the economics of heat pumps relative to natural gas furnaces, this study fills a gap in the literature by examining key questions about heat pumps relative to fuel oil and propane, which are the primary sources of heat for 12% of US homes (and much higher percentages in the Northeast, Mid-Atlantic, and rural regions of the country).
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