Energy production and consumption require water, and water transport and treatment need energy. Researchers and practitioners are increasingly interested in designing integrated programs to manage energy and water in tandem. Utilities typically do not focus on the avoided costs and indirect energy savings from reduced water consumption. Doing so would help them reduce expenditures and maximize the benefits of energy-water efficiency programs. This study provides an overview of practices for quantifying and reporting avoided energy-water costs from demand-side measures. We also summarize the regulatory guidance for incorporating water savings into cost-effectiveness screening for energy efficiency programs.
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